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View the Inclusion in Early Childhood Programs for an introduction on this module.

Principles of Inclusion (Access, Participation, Support)

Research and theory about inclusion and evidence-based practice have provided well-supported generalizations to guide practice and instruction (40min).

Read the article on Early Childhood Inclusion and reflect on the following:

  • How is inclusion defined?
  • What is meant by Access, Participation, and Supports?
  • How does the article inform your practice?
  • In what ways do the principles of access, participation and supports promote decision-making about how best to meet the needs of all children?

Watch the CONNECT Presentation Foundations of Inclusion from Birth to Five and reflect on the following:

  • How do public policy and educational mandates support young children with disabilities?

Developing Dispositions Towards Inclusion

Research indicates that successful inclusion is dependent on the attitudes and beliefs of all stakeholders.

Reflect on the following questions:

  • What do the terms "disability" and "inclusion" mean to you?
  • Do you have a friend or a family member with a disability? How has it affected your life?
  • Do you think that children with physical, emotional, and neurological disabilities should go to regular schools and be full-time members of a regular education?
  • How are people with disabilities typically portrayed in the media-- on TV, in movies, in the newspaper? Give examples.
  • Do you think society has an obligation to provide people with disabilities different or more protection and services than it does for people without disabilities?
  • Have you ever felt discriminated against because of your ethnicity, ability, age, gender, sexual orientation, etc.? Describe what happened?

Watch the clip from Including Samuel -  

Reflect on the following:

  • Why is an inclusive program important to Samuel's family?
  • How did the film make you feel?
  • How would you adapt your classroom to support Samuel?
  • Identify who could support you and what resources you may need.

Review the resources below:

Universal Design for Learning

A conscious approach to choosing, adapting, and using learning materials can make early childhood programs more welcoming and successful for all children, including children with disabilities.

Read Early Childhood Building Blocks - : Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in Early Childhood Inclusive Classrooms.

View the following videos from the National Center on Universal Design for Learning:

Explore three of the resources links provided in the article.

  • How would you embed these strategies in Language Arts, Math and Play activities
  • Use the Questions to Consider to observe a TK classroom and/or use it as a reflective tool for your own classroom.

View the video on using multiple learning strategies -  and answer the following question:

  • What can you learn from Ms. Kungu about teaching to different learning styles?

Accommodations and Adaptations

This section provides information about using accommodations and adaptions with young children with disabilities.

Accommodations and Modifications:

  • An accommodation is a change that helps a student overcome or work around the disability. These changes are typically physical or environmental changes.
  • Modifications are generally connected to instruction and assessment;, things that can be tangibly changed or modified. Usually a modification means a change in what is being taught to or expected from the student. Making the assignment easier so the student is not doing the same level of work as other students is an example of a modification.

View the presentation related to making accommodations -  .

Assistive Technology

Assistive technology device means any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of a child with a disability. The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted, or the replacement of that device.

View the video on Assistive Technology -  .

How can you embed the use of technology in your classroom to support the access to the general curriculum?